Descriptions are from Wikipedia (w) or my own understanding (p) unless otherwise noted.
A cricket is a ridge structure designed to divert water on a roof. It’s generally found on the high side of a chimney or the transition from one roof area to another. (w)
To rip a board is to cut a board down its length, with the grain. Chainsaws are best with cross cuts. The sawmill does only rip cuts. (p)
An eave is the edge of a roof. Eaves usually project beyond the side of the building generally to provide weather protection. (w)
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof… When wind flows over a gable roof it behaves much like a wing. Lift is created on the leeward side of the roof. The flatter the roof the more likely this will happen. Steep roofs tend to cause the wind to "stall" as it goes over the roof and breaks up the effect. (w) A steep roof also allows snow to slide off, reducing the load on the roof. (p)
A big piece of metal used to do just about anything. We use it for logging, lifting, hitting (inanimate objects), shifting, and anchoring. (p)
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as Maple. The word Acer is derived from a Latin word meaning "sharp", referring to the characteristic points on maple leaves. (w) Maple is a beautiful hardwood with nice grain. Used for the interior posts and beams, and for some of the planed paneling on the interior walls. (p)
Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family. (w) White Birch has the characteristic white ‘peely’ bark seen often in Adirondack or camp furniture. It’s a hardwood, but decays readily if left on the ground. (p)
Cedar (Cedrus) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are most closely related to the Firs (Abies), and share a very similar cone structure. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalaya and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalaya and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean. (w) Cedar is often used for siding or decking due to its ability to resist rot. It is a soft wood. We are using it for exterior posts and beams, as well as siding. (p)
A Spruce is a tree of the genus Picea a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from 20–60 (–95) m tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. (w) We’re using Spruce as the primary structural timber for the camps. (p)
The moose (North America) or common elk (Europe), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males; other members of the family have antlers with a "twig-like" configuration. (w) They’re everywhere.
The Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis) is a common hickory native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada…It is a large deciduous tree, growing up to 35 meters tall. (w) It’s incredibly heavy and strong and will be good for flooring. (p)
Stickering refers to stacking wood to dry by putting 1” x 1” “sticks” between each layer so that air can circulate. Wood dried in such a manner (naturally) should be allowed to sit for 5 or more years depending upon the species. We’re not waiting that long. We’ll watch for the consequences. (p)
Simple and strong, the mortise and tenon joint has been used for thousands of years by woodworkers around the world to join pieces of wood, usually when the pieces are at an angle close to 90°. Although there are many variations on the theme, the basic idea is that the end of one of the members is inserted into a hole cut in the other member. The end of the first member is called the tenon, and it is usually narrowed with respect to the rest of the piece. The hole in the second member is called the mortise. The joint may be glued, pinned, or wedged to lock it in place. (w)
Frame construction typically uses evenly spaced 2 x 4 or 2 x 6 as supporting walls. Weight is distributed evenly over the entire length of the wall. Rigidity is supplied by a skin such as plywood attached to the sill (bottom), plate (top) and all vertical members (studs).
Post and beam construction
Post and beam construction used timber posts and beams joined typically by mortise and tenon joints. Rigidity is provided by bracing between posts and beams. In theory, the walls provide no structural value.
Log houses are made by simply stacking logs atop one another to build a wall. Logs are typically notched at intersections to provide rigidity.